关于英语知识点总结

时间:2019-01-07 英语知识 我要投稿

  英语暑假总结

  词组

  1)动词短语

  (1) break

  break out 结束;断绝 break up 打碎

  break away 离开;逃脱 break down 毁坏;分解

  break out 爆发 break in 打断;插嘴

  break into 闯入

  (2) call

  call for 要求;需要;提倡 call back 收回(错话等)

  call up 征召(服役);动员 call on/upon

  call of 叫开;取消 call in

  (3) come

  come about 发生 come across

  come up with 想出;提供 come out

  come (a)round 苏醒;顺便采访 come along

  come off 脱落;分开 come on

  come through 经历 come to

  (4) give

  give back 归还 give up

  give off 释放;放出 give away

  give in 屈服;投降;交上 give out

  (5) go

  go after 追求 go against

  go ahead 开始;领先 go along

  go along with 赞同 go back on

  go by 经过 go in for

  go out 外出;熄灭 go into

  go on 继续;发生 go over

  go through 经历;仔细检查 go with

  go without 没有?也行

  (6) keep

  keep on 继续 keep up with

  keep up 保持;继续 keep back

  keep down 压制;镇压 keep from

  keep off 是让开;不接近 keep out of

  keep to 保持;坚持

  (7) look

  look up to 尊敬 look up

  look back on 回顾;回忆 look in

  look after 照顾 look on

  look into 调查;观察 look out

  look through 浏览;仔细核查 look over

  look to 照管;留心

  (8) make 访问;号召;呼吁 收回 偶然)遇见 出现;出版;发表 出现;发生;进步 表示鼓励、催促等)快;走吧 苏醒;总数为;结果是;涉及 放弃 赠送;泄露 分发;用完;发出(光、声音、气味)反对;对?不利 与?一起;进展 违背(诺言等) 从事;致力于 调查;研究;进入 复习;检查 伴随;与?协调 跟上 阻止;隐瞒 阻止 避开,不介入 查询 顺便看看 旁观 留神;注意 过目;参观

  make up for 弥补;补偿 be made up of 由?构成/组成

  make off 逃脱 make believe 假装

  make for 走向;有助于 make up 构成;编造;化妆

  (9) put

  put up with 容忍 put up 举起;张贴;建造

  put through 接通(电话) put out 熄灭;关(灯);出版;生产 put on 穿上;上演;增加(体重) put off 推迟;拖延;阻碍

  put down 记下;镇压 put forward 提出

  (10) set

  set up 开办;建立 set out 动身;开始

  set off 动身;使爆炸 set down 登记;放下

  set back 推迟 set aside 挑出;不顾

  set apart 使分离 set about 开始;散布(谣言等)

  (11) take

  take after 相像 take apart 拆开

  take?as 理解 take away 拿走;使离去;减去

  take down 记下;拆卸 take for 认为

  take on 承担;开始呈现 take into account 考虑

  take off 起飞;模仿 take to 开始对?产生好感

  take up 开始从事 take over 接任

  take out 拿出;去掉;扣除 take back 收回

  take in 接受;理解;欺骗 take effect 生效

  take turns 轮流

  (12) turn

  turn away 走开;把脸转过去 turn one’s back on 不理睬

  turn out 生产;驱逐;翻转 turn on 开

  turn off 关;拐弯 turn into 进入;使变成,使成为 turn in 拐入;交出;上床睡觉 turn down 关小;调低;拒绝

  turn against 对?采取敌对态度 by turns 轮流;交替

  turn back 折回 turn around 转变

  in turn 转而 turn up 出现;找到;证明是

  turn to 变成;求助于;着手;查阅 turn over 翻过来;仔细考虑

  2)高频词及搭配

  (1)case n.

  a case in point 恰当的例子 in any case 无论如何,不管怎样 in case 假使 in case of 假如;防备

  in no case 无论如何不;决不 in this/that case 如果这样/那样的话 in the case of 就?来说;至于

  (2)raise v.

  raise one’s hat to sb. 向某人举帽致敬 raise one’s hand 举手

  (3)available a..

  make sth. available to/for 使?可以享受/买得起某物

  (4)charge n.& vt.

  in charge of 主管;看管 in (under) the charge of 在?的掌管下

  charge sb. with 指控某人? charge money 要价

  take charge 接管

  (5)effect n..& v.

  bring/carry/put into effect 实行,实现 take effective measures 采取有效措施

  take effect 生效,起作用 to the effect that 大意是 in effect 实质上,实际上 come/go into effect 生效

  (6)relate v

  relate to/with 有关联 in/with relation to 有关,涉及

  阅读方法

  第一节 猜测词义,减少阅读障碍

  一、 上下语境法

  1. 利用定义、解释或重述猜测词义

  定义或解释时,常见的表述有:?means?;?is/are called?;?,which?;?can be defined as?;?is/are known as?;be;refer to;be referred to as;be spoken of as;mean;denote;be described as;be defined as;be thought of as;be known as;be called/named/termed;be taken to de等。

  进行重述时,常见的表达有:or?;in other words;to put it in another way;that is to say;that is;i.e.等。

  除了这些表述之外,有时文章的破折号、冒号、括号、逗号等也能起到提示的作用。

  2. 利用对比、反义词猜测词义

  表示对比的句子往往带有一个标志语,即从属连词、并列连词、介词或副词,常见的有:but;however;whereas;rather than;although;though;nevertheless;in spite of;despite;unlike;in contrast;on the other hand;instead (of)等。在同句中出现一对或几对反义词,能够加强对比对照的效果。同时,作者也可利用意义相反的词汇来对某个单词进行解释或说明。

  3. 利用同义词猜测词义

  为了使某个生词或术语的含义更加清楚,作者有时会用一个常用词、词组或简练的句子来加以重述,这种重述往往可以在生词后面找到。我们可以通过这种联系找出词与词之间的相互关系。判断词的意义。

  4. 利用举例猜测词义

  常见的用于举例说明解释的表达有:such as;like;especially;for example;for instance;as;as?as等。

  5. 一般常识

  我们往往可以根据自己的经验或用已经了解的某事物的一般常识来猜测词义,而这种常识一般在文中已经给出。

  二、 构词法

  1.复合词 2.混合词 3.寻找词根 4.辨认前后缀

  三、 逻辑连接

  英语中表达各种逻辑意义的连接手段,可表现为此、词组、分句或其他具有连接作用的结构。以下介绍一些常用的连接手段。

  (1)表示列举的有:firstly,secondly,thirdly,finally,in the first(second,third)place,to begin with,to start with,first of all,next,also,after that,then等。

  (2)表示举例的有:for example,for instance,to illustrate,as an illustration,such as,as a case in point,one example is that?等。

  (3)表示原因的有:because,as,since,for,the reason for this lies in the fact is that?,the key(main,chief,most important)reason is (that)?thanks to,due to,owing to,in consequence of,on the ground of等。

  (4)表示比较的有:similarly,likewise,in the same way,i.e.等。

  (5)表示对照的有:but,however,nevertheless,rather than,instead of,on the other hand,by contrast,on the contrary,while,whereas,in spite of that,in contrast,conversely等。

  (6)表示让步的有:in spite of this/that,of course,no doubt,naturally,though,to tell you the truth等。

  (7)表示结果的有:therefore,hence,thus,so,as a result (of),as consequence of,accordingly,consequently等。

  (8)表示归纳的有:in short,in brief,in one word,in summary,in conclusion,to conclude等。

  (9)表示强调的有:in fact,as a matter of fact,in reality,in effect,sure enough,to be sure,actually,especially,above all,in particular,particularly,most importantly,omst important of all等。

  (10)表示引出观点的有:in my opinion,to my mind,I think(believe,hold,assume,suppose)that?,it is my belief that?,relatively speaking,as everyone knows,It enjoys worldwide acceptance that?,no one can deny that?,recent studies have led the public to realization that?,there is enough proof(evidence) to show that?,It is well known that?,As can be seen from the table that?,it is quite clear(obvious,certain)that?等。

  (11)表示添加的有:and,also,beside,furthermore,moreover,in addition to等。

  (12)表示结论的有:in a word,in short,in brief,in conclusion,in summary,to conclude,to sum up,to draw a conclusion,to say it simply,to put it simply,all in all,overall,on the whole等。

  第二节 句子的阅读和理解

  一、 确定难点所在,简化难点

  1. 如果句子里生词多,可把生词删去,看看是否理解剩下部分。

  2. 如果句子很长,可把句子分成若干短句。

  3. 确定句子中说明或展开主题的部分。一般说来,逗号,破折号,由which,who或that引导的从句等提供的多半是附加信息或对主题进一步说明。这时可把说明性部分删去,以确定主题。

  二、 辨别能够影响句意的重要语法现象和标点符号

  1. 找出能够影响句意的词和词缀。

  2. 找出能够影响句意的标点符号。

  3. 找出表明句子各部分相互关系的关键词。如:As a result of all of the newspaper and TV attention,the problem of the rain forest has become well known. (as a result of 表明因果关系,其后跟随的名词性短语说明的是原因。)

  4. 找出句中的代词,弄清代词的指代关系。

  三、 圆周句及长难句分析

  1. 圆周句

  圆周句,又称周期句(periodic sentence),指主句或谓语在句末的句子。为了提高阅读速度,像这样的句子,我们阅读的过程中只要抓住信息的中心点(后面的主句部分),若是需要再分析整个长句。

  2. 长句难句

  就四级考试而言,所谓难句,一难在于结构,二难在于词汇因素。词汇因素主要涉及一词多义或熟词生意等问题。所谓“词无定义”,即词义是由上下文确定的,一个词或词组只有在具体语境中才具有意义。因此理解词汇必须联系上下文。

  结构因素主要体现在句式的复杂性,如多重复句、特殊表现法、长句等。这些句子对语言能力的要求较高,首先要求结合上下文,大致摸清其在上下文中的结构作用;其次要从句子主干入手,弄清主干部分。结构清楚了,意思也就容易理解了。

  第三节 阅读理解的传统题型——多项选择

  一、 题型介绍与分析

  1. 主旨题

  主旨题主要考察考生理解、把握全文或某一段落的主旨大意的能力。正确回答此类问题,要求考生能够甄别主要信息和次要信息,在此基础上,进而归纳总结出某一段落或整个篇章的中心思想或主要论题。这类题型的常见提问方式有:

  a. What is the main ideal of the passage?

  b. Which of the following sentence best expresses the main idea?

  c. What does this passage mainly suggest?

  d. The major problem discussed in this article is ___.

  e. What is the best/most appropriate title for this selection?

  f. The title best conveys the idea of the passage i

  s ___.

  g. The best summary of this passage is ___.

  h. The author’s purpose in writing this article is ___.