被动语态的语法知识点分析

时间:2017-07-29 职称英语 我要投稿

  导语:下面小编为您收集整理了被动语态的语法知识点,希望对您有帮助!

  (一)被动语态的概念:

  不知道或没必要提到动作的执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。

  (二)被动语态的构成方式:

  be + 过去分词,口语只也有用get / become + 过去分词表示。

  (三)被动语态的基本用法:

  (1)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题。

  ①主动变化被动时双宾语的变化。看下列例句。

  My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.

  An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.

  I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.

  ②主动变被动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to。

  The boss made him work all day long.

  He was made to work all day long(by the boss)

  ③短语动词变被动语态时,勿要掉“尾巴”。

  The children were taken good care of (by her).

  Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.

  ④情态动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变被动语态,只需将它们后面的动词原形变为be +过去分词。

  ⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,被动语态有两种形式:(A)谓语动词用被动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作形式主语,真正的主语在后面,用主语从句来表示。如:

  People say he is a smart boy.

  It is said that he is a smart boy.

  He is said to be a smart boy.

  People know paper was made in China first.

  It is known that paper was made in China first.

  Paper was known to be made in China first.

  类似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …

  ①所有的不及物动词或不及物动词词组,不能用于被动语态之中。

  ②表示状态的谓语动词,不能用于被动语态之中,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。

  ③表示归属的动词,不能用于被动语态之中,如:have、own、belong to等。

  ④表示“希望、意图”的动词,不能用于被动语态之中,如:wish、want、hope等。

  ⑤宾语是反身代词或相互代词时谓语动词用主动语态,不能用被动语态。

  ⑥宾语是同源宾语,不定式、动名词等谓语动词不用被动语态。

  ⑦有些动词以其主动形式表示被动意义,特别是当主语是物时,常见的动词有sell、write、wash、open、lock等。